Health information on the Internet


Health information on the Internet refers to the Internet .

Types

As a general communication channel, various Internet products serve every type of general health information.

Targeting types of information to different audiences

In the late 1990s, the number of people in the population was estimated to be very high, while the number of people in the population was different. [1] Various problems-have-been APPROBATION For Those using search enginesto seek health information. [2]

There is a need for patients to have access to their personal health information in a form that they can understand and understand. [3] Physicians worry that patients using their own medical history records as a starting point for personal research on the Internet are at risk for being overwhelmed and misinformed when seeking information on the Internet. [4]

As of 2013 opinions about the relationship health care providers have been established. [5] According to one 2014 study, “The flow of information has fundamentally changed, and physicians have more control over health information relayed to patients.Not surprisingly, this paradigm shift has elicited varied and sometimes conflicting views of the value of the Internet. a tool to improve health care. ” [6]

Social media channels have been noted as places where physicians can visit to get insight on patient thoughts. [7] Patients have gone to social media for health information, sometimes of dubious quality. [8] [9] [10] [11] Several studies have used social media to gather data on adverse drug reactions (ADRs), with generally promising results. [12]

Various commercial organizations use health information from the Internet. The use of social media has been described in [13] [14], including the risk of accidental violations of health care providers and social media. [15] [16]

Educational resources for lay audiences

Background on the doctor-patient relationship

Main article: Doctor-patient relationship

Physicians have difficulty explaining complicated medical concepts to their patients and patients. One of the reasons for this is that patients are usually less than 15 minutes, and in any case, patients are usually unable to attend. [17] Which patients do not understand, but which they would like to learn. [18] There is consensus that patients should have shared decision making , which means that they make informed decisions about the direction of their health care in collaboration with their physician. [19]Rich, educated, socially advantaged. [20]

Lack of patient understanding of health and medical care. [21] Patients without access to health information sont également more Likely to use complementary and alternative medicine qui is not evidence-based medicine and to fail to inform Their physician That They Are doing so. [21] [22] While some benefits may be gained by patients, there are also benefits in the treatment of patients who are more efficient in the treatment of patients. powerful strategy for improving health care processes.[23]

Resources

Various social forums exist in which anyone can have conversations about health with their peers. Such forums are especially popular among patients who seek to have conversations with other patients with a shared medical concern. [24] Those who participate in online communities who discuss health issues, report their feelings about their health, and have more personal knowledge overall. [25]

Some research Has Failed to find evidence to validate physicians’ patients Concerns That Typically Receive misinformation online or using health information inappropriately to conduct self diagnosis . [24] [26] [27] Patients with chronic diseases who use the Internet to get health information. [28]

Academic medical literature

The written record of medical consensus is stored in scientific journals . Since the advent of electronic publishing has been published in the journal of the Internet.

Patients’ personal health information

Throughout the past few years, these data are available in a wide variety of databases that are available to the Internet.

Quality

Quality assurance is standard universally accepted. [29] Regardless of what kind of measure is used, much health information on the Internet is of dubious quality. [30] Among all sources there is a wide variance in the quality of health information on the Internet. [31] There is a wide variance in the nature and quality of a wide range of different types of research. </ Ref> Among all sources there is a wide variance in health information on the Internet. [32]

Personal health information

For many applications people wish to use health information. Because of this, the goal is often used to describe a person’s medical record . citation needed ] Since the advent of electronic media , medical records have been kept as high as electronic medical records . citation needed ] If electronic medical records were shared then it would be easy to match those with information and conduct a range of research. [33] However, all medical records are protectedbecause sharing personal health information exposes an individual to a range of harms which result from violation of their expectation of privacy . quote needed ]

There is currently a large number of countries in the world of medical care, and they are interested in personal health and safety. quote needed ]

Electronic medical records

Main article: Electronic medical record

An electronic medical record is a medical record stored as electronic media . [34]

De-identification

Main article: De-identification

Identification is an attempt to divide a collection of information about a particular person, and to identify the person with The closer the data is to anonymization the less valuable the data is to Those Who want it, so in general, data is only de-APPROBATION Somewhat Rarely and anonymized. There are many controversies in de-identification. quote needed ]

Research using personal health information

There is a large demand for access to large collections of various types of personal health information. citation needed ] Almost all of this demand is commercial. quote needed ]

Distribution of collections of personal health information

Various groups have expressed concern over the health of the public. [35]

In 2014 National Health Service in the United Kingdom. [36] [37]

Major providers of health information on the Internet

PubMed

Main article: PubMed

PubMed is a free search engine primarily accessing the MEDLINE database of references and abstracts on life sciences and biomedical topics. The United States National Library of Medicine at the National Institutes of Healthmaintains the database.

Wikipedia

Main article: Health information on Wikipedia

In 2014 Wikipedia was described as “the leading single source of healthcare information for patients and healthcare professionals”. [38]

Other wikis

Main article: List of medical wikis

Regulation

In the United States the Food and Drug Administration offers guidance for health industry organizations which share information online. [39] [40]

References

  1. Jump up^ Risk, A .; Petersen, C. (2002). “Health Information on the Internet”. JAMA . 287 (20): 2713-2715. doi : 10.1001 / jama.287.20.2713 . PMID  12020308 .
  2. Jump up^ Berland, GK; Elliott, MN; Morales, LS; Algazy, JI; Kravitz, RL; Embroider, MS; Kanouse, DE; Muñoz, JA; Puyol, JA; RAM.; Watkins, KE; Yang, H .; McGlynn, EA (2001). “Health Information on the Internet”. JAMA . 285 (20): 2612-2621. doi : 10.1001 / jama.285.20.2612 . PMC  4182102  . PMID  11368735 .
  3. Jump up^ Beaudin, JS; Intille, SS; Morris, ME (2006). “To track or not to track: user reactions to concepts in longitudinal health monitoring” . Journal of medical Internet research . 8 (4): e29. doi : 10.2196 / jmir.8.4.e29 . PMC  1794006  . PMID  17236264 .
  4. Jump up^ Robeznieks, A (May 21, 2007). “Personal liability, patient-data overload among issues of uneasy overcoming personal health records”. Modern healthcare . 37 (21): 40-2. PMID  17824189 .
  5. Jump up^ Farnan, Jeanne M. (16 April 2013). “Online Medical Professionalism: Patient and Public Relationships: Policy Statement From the American College of Physicians and the Federation of State Medical Boards”. Annals of Internal Medicine . 158 (8): 620-7. doi : 10.7326 / 0003-4819-158-8-201304160-00100 . PMID  23579867 .
  6. Jump up^ Tonsaker, Tabitha; Bartlett, Gillian; Trpkov, Cvetan (2016-11-14). “Health information on the Internet” . Canadian Family Physician . 60 (5): 407-408. ISSN  0008-350X . PMC  4020634  . PMID  24828994 .
  7. Jump up^ Verhoef, Lise M; Van de Belt, Tom H; Engelen, Lucien JLPG; Schoonhoven, Lisette; Kool, Rudolf B (20 February 2014). “Social Media and Rating Sites and Tools for Understanding Quality of Care: A Scoping Review”. Journal of Medical Internet Research . 16 (2): e56. doi : 10.2196 / jmir.3024 . PMID  24566844 .
  8. Jump up^ Prybutok, Gayle; Ryan, Sherry (2015-04-01). “Social media: the key to health information for 18- to 30-year-old college students”. Computers, informatics, nursing: CIN . 33 (4): 132-141. doi : 10.1097 / CIN.0000000000000147 . ISSN  1538-9774 . PMID  25887107 .
  9. Jump up^ Lau, AYS; Siek, KA; Fernandez-Luque, L .; Tange, H .; Chhanabhai, P .; Li, SYW; Elkin, PL; Arjabi, A .; Walczowski, L. (2011-01-01). “The role of social media for patients and consumer health” (PDF) . IMIA Yearbook . 6 (1): 131-138.
  10. Jump up^ Fernández-Luque, Luis; Bau, Teresa (2015-01-01). “Health and social media: perfect storm of information” . Healthcare informatics research . 21 (2): 67-73. doi : 10.4258 / hir.2015.21.2.67 . PMID  25995958 .
  11. Jump up^ Helve, Otto; Kattelus, Mervi; Norhomaa, Samuli; Saarni, Samuli (2015-01-01). “[Health information and social media: the doctor’s primary school teacher again]”. Duodecim; Laaketieteellinen Aikakauskirja . 131 (21): 2003-2008. ISSN  0012-7183 . PMID  26677551 .
  12. Jump up^ Sarker, Abeed; Ginn, Rachel; Nikfarjam, Azadeh; O’Connor, Karen; Smith, Karen; Jayaraman, Swetha; Upadhaya, Tejaswi; Gonzalez, Graciela (2015-04-01). “Utilizing social media data for pharmacovigilance: A review” . Journal of Biomedical Informatics . 54 : 202-212. doi :10.1016 / j.jbi.2015.02.004 . ISSN  1532-0480 . PMC  4408239  . PMID  25720841 .
  13. Jump up^ Denecke, K .; Bamidis, P .; Bond, C .; Gabarron, E .; Househ, M .; Lau, AYS; Mayer, MA; Merolli, M .; Hansen, M. (2015-08-13). “Ethical Issues of Social Media Use in Healthcare” . Yearbook of Medical Informatics . 10 (1): 137-147. doi : 10.15265 / IY-2015-001 . ISSN  0943-4747 . PMC  4587037  . PMID  26293861 .
  14. Jump up^ Moorhead, S Anne; Hazlett, Diane E; Harrison, Laura; Carroll, Jennifer K; Irwin, Anthea; Hoving, Ciska (2013-04-23). “A New Dimension of Health Care: Systematic Review of the Uses, Benefits, and Limitations of Social Media for Health Communication . ” Journal of Medical Internet Research . 15 (4): e85. doi : 10.2196 / jmir.1933 . ISSN  1439-4456 . PMC  3636326  . PMID  23615206 .
  15. Jump up^ Ventola, C. Lee (2016-11-14). “Social Media and Health Care Professionals: Benefits, Risks, and Best Practices” . Pharmacy and Therapeutics . 39 (7): 491-520. ISSN  1052-1372 . PMC  4103576  . PMID  25083128 .
  16. Jump up^ Shay, Daniel F. (2014-08-25). “Physician use of social media: navigating the risks.” Medical Economics . 91 (16): 44-46. ISSN  0025-7206 . PMID  25509476 .
  17. Jump up^ Mechanic, David; McAlpine, Donna D .; Rosenthal, Marsha (18 January 2001). Are Patients Office Visits with Physicians Getting Shorter? New England Journal of Medicine . 344 (3): 198-204. doi : 10.1056 / NEJM200101183440307 . PMID  11172143 .
  18. Jump up^ Castro, CM; Wilson, C; Wang, F; Schillinger, D (Sep-Oct 2007). Babel Babble: Physicians use unclarified medical jargon with patients. American journal of health behavior . 31 Suppl 1: S85-95. doi : 10.5555 / ajhb.2007.31.supp.S85 (inactive 2017-08-19). PMID  17931142 .
  19. Jump up^ Braddock III, Clarence H .; Edwards, Kelly A .; Hasenberg, Nicole M .; Laidley, Tracy L .; Levinson, Wendy (22 December 1999). “Informed Decision Making in Outpatient Practice”. JAMA . 282 (24): 2313. doi :10.1001 / jama.282.24.2313 . PMID  10612318 .
  20. Jump up^ Fiscella, Kevin; Epstein, Ronald M. (22 September 2008). “So Much to Do, So Little Time: Care for the socially disadvantaged and the 15-minute visit” . Archives of Internal Medicine . 168 (17): 1843-52. doi : 10.1001 / arched.168.17.1843 . PMC  2606692  . PMID  18809810 .
  21. ^ Jump up to:b A better source shoulds be used to supporting this claim, ALTHOUGH this source is good enough for how it is used here.
    • Wicks, Paul; Massagli, Michael; Frost, Jeana; Brownstein, Catherine; Okun, Sally; Vaughan, Timothy; Bradley, Richard; Heywood, James (14 June 2010). “Sharing Health Data for Better Outcomes on PatientsLikeMe” . Journal of Medical Internet Research . 12 (2): e19. doi : 10.2196 / jmir.1549 . PMC  2956230  . PMID  20542858 .
  22. Jump up^ Robinson, A; McGrail, MR (Jun-Sep 2004). “Disclosure of CAM in the field of qualitative and quantitative studies”. Complementary therapies in medicine . 12 (2-3): 90-8. doi : 10.1016 / j.ctim.2004.09.006 . PMID  15561518 .
  23. Jump up^ Lorig, K (Mar 9, 2002). “Partnerships between expert patients and physicians”. Lancet . 359 (9309): 814-5. doi : 10.1016 / S0140-6736 (02) 07959-X . PMID  11897275 .
  24. ^ Jump up to:b Eysenbach, G. (15 May 2004). “Health related virtual communities and electronic support groups: the systematic review of the effects of online peer to peer interactions” . BMJ . 328 (7449): 1166-0. doi : 10.1136 / bmj.328.7449.1166 . PMC  411092  . PMID  15142921 .
  25. Jump up^ Barak, Azy; Boniel-Nissim, Meyran; Suler, John (September 2008). “Fostering empowerment in online support groups”. Computers in Human Behavior . 24 (5): 1867-1883. doi : 10.1016 / j.chb.2008.02.004 .
  26. Jump up^ Ahmad, F; Hudak, PL; Bercovitz, K; Hollenberg, E; Levinson, W (Sep 29, 2006). “Are physicians ready for patients with Internet-based health information?” . Journal of medical Internet research . 8 (3): e22. doi :10.2196 / jmir.8.3.e22 . PMC  2018833  . PMID  17032638 .
  27. Jump up^ Crocco, AG; Villasis-Keever, M .; Jadad, AR (Jun 5, 2002). “Analysis of cases of harm associated with the use of health information on the internet”. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association . 287(21): 2869-71. doi : 10.1001 / jama.287.21.2869 . PMID  12038937 .
  28. Jump up^ Stevenson, FA; Kerr, C; Murray, E; Nazareth, I (Aug. 16, 2007). “Information from the Internet and the doctor-patient relationship: the patient perspective – a qualitative study” . BMC Family Practice . 8 : 47.doi : 10.1186 / 1471-2296-8-47 . PMC  2041946  . PMID  17705836 .
  29. Jump up^ Jadad, AR; Gagliardi, A. (1998). “Rating Health Information on the Internet”. JAMA . 279 (8): 611-614. doi : 10.1001 / jama.279.8.611 . PMID  9486757 .
  30. Jump up^ Purcell, GP; Wilson, P .; Delamothe, T. (2002). “The quality of health information on the internet” . BMJ (Clinical research ed.) . 324 (7337): 557-558. doi : 10.1136 / bmj.324.7337.557 . PMC  1122494  . PMID  11884303 .
  31. Jump up^ Fahy, E; Hardikar, R; Fox, A; Mackay, S (2014). “Quality of patient health information on the Internet: a complex and evolving landscape” . The Australasian medical journal . 7 (1): 24-28. doi : 10.4066 / AMJ.2014.1900 . PMC  3920473  . PMID  24567763 .
  32. Jump up^ Khosrowjerdi, M. (2016). A review of theory-driven models of trust in the online health context. IFLA Journal, 42 (3): pp. 189-206. http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/0340035216659299
  33. Jump up^ Pagliari, C; Detmer, D; Singleton, P (Aug 18, 2007). Potential of electronic personal health records . BMJ (Clinical research ed.) . 335(7615): 330-3. doi : 10.1136 / bmj.39279.482963.AD . PMC  1949437  . PMID  17703042 .
  34. Jump up^ Tang, P. C; Ash, J. S; Bates, D. W; Overhage, J M .; Sands, D. Z (March 1, 2006). “Personal Health Records: Definitions, Benefits, and Strategies for Overcoming Barriers to Adoption” . Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association . 13 (2): 121-126. doi : 10.1197 / jamia.M2025. PMC 1447551 . PMID 16357345.
  35. Jump up^ Doctorow, Cory (5 June 2013). “Data protection in the EU: the certainty of uncertainty” . theguardian.com . Retrieved 31 March 2014 .
  36. Jump up^ Ramesh, Randeep (19 January 2014). “NHS patient data to be made available for sale to drug and insurance firms” . theguardian.com . Retrieved 31 March 2014 .
  37. Jump up^ Wolf, Asher (7 February 2014). “Thanks to Care.data, your secrets are no longer safe with your GP (Wired UK)” . wired.co.uk . Retrieved 31 March 2014 .
  38. Jump up^ Note – sketchy link requires registration. IMS Health (2014). “The use of Wikipedia in Health Care”. Engaging patients through social media Is healthcare ready for empowered and digitally demanding patients? . IMS Health . pp. 16-26 . Retrieved 22 January 2014 . Further cited in
    • NPR staff (8 February 2014). “Dr. Wikipedia: The Double-Edged Sword Of Crowd-Sourced Medicine” . npr.org . NPR . Retrieved 10 February2014 .
    • Feltman, Rachel (28 January 2014). “America’s future doctors are starting their careers by saving Wikipedia” . qz.com . Retrieved 5 February 2014 .
    • Reagan, Michael (Jan 31, 2014). “Wikipedia Should not be Doctors’ online healthcare source” . newsmax.com . Retrieved 5 February2014 .
    • Tucker, Miriam E. (February 5, 2014). “Doctors, Not Just Patients, Use Wikipedia, Too: IMS Report” . Medscape . Retrieved 7 February 2014.
    • Beck, Julie (March 5, 2014). “Doctors’ # 1 Source for Healthcare Information: Wikipedia” . theatlantic.com . Retrieved 5 March 2014 .
  39. Jump up^ FDA Voice (17 June 2014). “FDA Issues Draft Guidance for Industry on Social Media and Internet Communications About Medical Products: Designed with Patients in Mind” . blogs.fda.gov . Retrieved 5 September2014 .
  40. Jump up^ Food and Drug Administration (2014-07-07). “About the Center for Drug Evaluation and Research” For Industry: Using Social Media ” . fda.gov . Retrieved 5 September 2014 .